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FAQ

What kind of experiments can be done by using AFFINIX series instruments ?
There are various experiments can be done to measure such as Binding amount, binding affinity and binding kinetics by monitoring frequency change of quartz crystal. Non-label and real-time monitoring of biomolecular interaction and material adsorption are measurable.
What kind of objects can be measured by using AFFINIX series instruments ?
Proteins, DNA, polysaccharides, cells, lipids, organic compounds, polymeric materials, carbon materials, nanoparticles and thin film can be measurable. Dynamic range of detectable binding amount is roughly 100 pg ~ 10 µg.
What are advantages of AFFINIX series over SPR instruments ?
AFFINIX series have advantages of versatile applications, simple operation, easy maintenance and low running cost. Moreover, it gives our cup-typed sensor system an advantage over flow-typed system of measuring large sized particles or viscous molecules.
What are advantages of AFFINIX series over other QCM instruments ?
Sensitivity is relatively high. In basic principle of QCM, higher fundamental resonance frequency gives higher mass sensitivity. Fundamental resonance frequency of our QCM system is 27 MHz, which means sensitivity of our QCM is about 30 and 10 times higher than conventional 5 MHz and 9 MHz QCM. Our QCM system is suitable for biomolecular interaction analysis and evaluation of nanomaterial that need high sensitivity.
What is the mass sensitivity and concentration sensitivity ?
Mass sensitivity of small molecule that binds to protein-immobilized surface is 240 Da (biotin binding to Neutravidin). Mass sensitivity of small molecule that binds to gold surface directly is 120 Da (cystein binding to gold surface). Concentration sensitivity is around 13 pM (2 ng/mL, antibody binding to antigen).
How long does it take to stabilize the system ?
It depends on setting temperature, immobilization molecule and solution properties. However, it takes about 10 to 15 minutes to stabilize it in most cases.
Is it possible to recover used samples for different evaluation ?
It is possible to recover samples from glass cell.
How do we immobilize sample molecules on sensor surface ?
We have protocols of immobilization methods about direct adsorption on gold surface, covalent bonding by amine-coupling method on carboxylic acid surface, avidin-biotin method on avidin-coated surface and cast method from organic solvent.The immobilized sample amount can be monitored.
What kinds of sensors are available ?
Standard sensor surface is non-modified gold. We can offer carboxylic acid-modified surface, avidin-coated surface, Ti-coated surface, SiO2-coated surface and so on as immobilization service.
Is sensor reusable ?

Basically, we recommend single use only for most reliable data, however sensor can be reusable by washing sensor surface. One washing method is dissociation of analyte only by changing salt concentration or ionic strength of solution, immobilization protein remains on surface. Another method is dissociation of all molecules by using piranha solution or SDS solution.

*Frequently reused sensors may cause to decrease the reproducibility of data.

How can I calculate binding constants (Ka and Kd) and kinetic constants (kon and koff) ?
By changing the concentration of binding analyte, binding constant and kinetic constant can be calculated. It is easy to calculate these constants by using our optional analytical software (AQUA).
Are there any methods to resist the nonspecific adsorption on surface ?
We offer the blocking reagents to resist nonspecific binding. We can also provide with its technical protocols.
Is it possible to measure samples in organic solvent ?
Low concentration of organic-solvent may be applicable. For further information, please e-mail us at Contact us.
What kinds of consumables are available ?
Consumables for basic experiments are sensor tip, sensor cell, glass cell, stirrer tip and blocking reagent as our company’s supply, micro pipette, tip, solution buffer as commercial supply.
It is possible to measure cells on sensor surface ?
Adsorption and stimuli response of Cells can be monitored by using AFFINIX series.
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